Diabetes mellitus is a disease that affects glucose in the blood stream from entering the necessary cells, where glucose is needed for growth and energy expenditure. The pancreas, a large gland, is responsible for producing enough of a hormone called insulin to ensure that glucose in the blood stream can pass into the cells where it is needed. People with diabetes have a pancreas that is not able to produce enough insulin, or none at all, which causes high levels of glucose in the blood stream after eating. This excess glucose is passed out of the body through urine. Although the body is getting enough glucose through the correct diet, because of the malfunctioning pancreas the body is unable to use it, and it is expelled from the body.
Diabetes is a serious disease that can develop complications that can eventually lead to a premature death assuming the person doesn’t suffer from any other life-threatening illnesses. There are 3 main types of diabetes and we will look at all 3 in remainder of this article. The 3 types of diabetes are type 1 diabetes, type 2 diabetes and gestational diabetes.
Type 1 diabetes, sometimes referred to as insulin dependent or juvenile on-set diabetes. As the name implies, the sufferer will need to take insulin once or several times a day to survive. Is is an autoimmune disease that actually turns against the body and instead of attacking cells that cause infection, it actually attacks the cells in the pancreas that are responsible for producing insulin, namely, the beta cells. If not diagnosed early and treated immediately a sufferer can laps into a diabetic ketoacidosis or what is commonly known as a diabetic coma.
Type 1 diabetes usually develops in children and young adults, but is also capable of developing in adults of all ages. 5 to 10 percent of all diabetes cases in the USA are type 1 specific.
It is not known exactly how or what factors can cause or lead to type 1 diabetes developing in someone, but scientists suspect that genetic and environmental factors may play a part, possibly also including viruses. Symptoms can normally develop over a relatively short period of time and can include extreme fatigue and blurred vision, weight loss and an increased appetite. Also an increased need to urinate.
Type 2 diabetes, often known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus or adult-onset diabetes. This is the most common form of diabetes, and is diagnosed in 90 to 95 percent of all diabetes sufferers, and mainly those in older age.
Type 2 diabetes often occurs in those who are overweight. That is about 80 percent of type 2 sufferers. Other contributing factors that can also present themselves in exception to being overweight are lack of exercise, a family history of diabetes, impaired glucose metabolism and certain ethnic groups are also at risk such as american from African, Native American, Hispanic/Latino and Asian ethnic groups.
Gestational diabetes: this type of diabetes is diagnosed in women during pregnancy (in the later stages of pregnancy) and can be found in women who present some of the contributing factors found in those that suffer from type 1 and 2 diabetes. Gestational diabetes is caused by pregnancy-related hormones or low levels of insulin production. It is not uncommon for women to not present with any symptoms. Often women who are overweight and have a history of diabetes in their family. It also more frequently occurs in African, Hispanic, Latino and Native Americans. There is a close link between symptoms of gestational diabetes and those with type 2 diabetes.
Of all pregnant women in the USA, somewhere between 3 and 8 percent will suffer from gestational diabetes. It needs to be managed to lower the risk of the baby suffering complications. 5 to 10 percent of women who present with gestational diabetes are also diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. 20 to 50 percent of those who don’t have an increased risk of developing diabetes in the next 5 to 10 years.